Feedback Controls Of Automation
The input functions of manufacturing automation are widely found in sophisticated computer systems. Five basic components include feedback mechanisms: controlled inputs, systems, outputs, sensors, motors, and actuators. Often the word “closed-loop feedback control” describes this type of system.
Entry into the computer is the reference point for device output. It is the optimal operating value for the output. The input is the optimal temperature setting for a room using the thermal system as a reference in the previous case. Computer runs the boiler (e.g., the oven). It might be a manufacturing mechanism in other input systems, a space shuttle rocket engine, the cruise control engine or other system used to use fuel. In the above case, the output is the part of the evaluated process and is compared to the input.
The measuring instruments used for calculating the output variable value in the feedback loop are the sensing elements. In the case of the heating system this function is usually done with a bimetallic strip. Two bars of metal joined between their lengths. The two metals have different thermal expansion coefficients, which thus flex in direct proportion to a change in temperature as the strip temperature rises. So, the temperature can be determined by the bimetallic unit. Several distinct types of sensors are used in feedback control systems for automation.
In the feedback system the controller and actuator systems are configured to measure and minimise the difference between the measured output values and the reference input value. The control system and the actuator are usually mechanisms that influence the output variable by changing the function. Usually, subjects such as motors, levers, solenoid button switches or piston tubes, gears, power torches, pulley mechanisms, chain drives, and other mechanical and electrical components are designed specifically for the unit. The heating system sensor and actuator is the lever which is connected to the thermostat bimetal strip. The switch turns the heater on when the output is below the specified point (room temperature). If the temperature is higher than the specified limit, the heat is shut off.